Ph.D. Dissertation Defense - Florian Roth

Jul 01 2019 10:00 AM - Jul 01 2019 12:30 PM

TITLE: Consequences of coral-algal phase shifts for reef ecosystem functioning in the central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

ADVISOR: Professor Burton H. Jones 

DATE: Monday, July 01, 2019

TIME: 10:00 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.

LOCATION: Building 2 - Level 5 - Room 5209

 

Abstract: Tropical coral reefs provide important ecosystem goods and services that are supported by one or more ecosystem functions (e.g., recruitment, primary production, calcification, and nutrient recycling). Scleractinian corals drive most of these functions, but a combination of global and local anthropogenic stressors has caused persistent shifts from coral- to algae-dominated benthic reef communities globally. Such phase shifts likely have major consequences for ecosystem functions; yet, related knowledge is scarce in general, but particularly at the community level, under 'in situ' conditions, and under the influence of changing environmental variables. Thus, we conducted a series of interconnected in situ experiments in coral- and algae-dominated reef communities in the central Red Sea, combining traditional community ecology approaches with novel metabolic and biogeochemical assessments from December 2016 to January 2018. Specifically, we (i) examined the influence of coral-algal phase shifts on recruitment and succession patterns, (ii) assessed the role of benthic pioneer communities in reef carbon and nitrogen dynamics, (iii) developed a novel approach to measure functions of structurally complex reef communities in situ, and (iv) quantified biogeochemical functions of mature coral- and algae-dominated reef communities. The findings suggest that coral-algal phase shifts fundamentally modify critical reef functions at different levels of biological organization, namely from pioneer to mature reef communities. For example, community shifts, through a lower habitat complexity and grazing pressure, decreased the number of coral recruits by >50 %, thereby inhibiting the replenishment of adult coral populations. At the same time, a 30 % higher productivity (annual mean) and increased energy retention in algae-dominated communities supported a fast biomass accumulation and community growth, altering the habitat-specific community metabolism and reef biogeochemistry. Seasonal warming amplified these functional differences between coral- and algae-dominated communities, likely promoting a positive feedback loop of reef degradation under predicted ocean warming. Overall, this dissertation provides quantitative data on critical functions of classical and phase shifted novel reef communities, on tipping points for the collapse of community functions, and potential future winners and losers. The knowledge gained with this thesis helps, thereby, to understand how phase-shifted reef ecosystems function and which services will be generated in comparison to coral-dominated reefs under near-future stress scenarios.

 

Bio: Florian is originally from Germany, where he completed his Bachelor’s degree in Biological Sciences in 2011 at the Heinrich-Heine-University in Düsseldorf. In 2012, he started the international M.Sc. study program 'International Studies in Aquatic Tropical Ecology’ (ISATEC) that is conducted jointly by the University of Bremen and the Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT). He completed his Master’s degree in September 2014 with the thesis “Effects of simulated overfishing on the succession of benthic algae and invertebrates in upwelling-influenced coral reefs of Costa Rica”. In 2014/2015, Florian coordinated a research project for the European Commission to assess the impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality parameters in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). In August 2015, he started his Ph.D. at KAUST under the supervision of Prof. Burton H. Jones at the Integrated Ocean Processes Laboratory. Florian's research integrates ecological, metabolic, and biogeochemical data to understand how marine organisms interact with their environment. In particular, he is interested in the mechanisms and rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling by benthic communities in response to global (warming and acidification) and local (eutrophication, pollutants, and overfishing) stressors. He uses a wide range of analytical techniques (e.g., EA-IRMS, GC/MS, CO2 and TOC/TON analyzers) combined with traditional mesocosm and novel in situ experiments for holistic assessments of community-wide functional responses to environmental change.