Whale sharks target dense prey patches of sergestid shrimp off Tanzania

C. Rohner, A. Armstrong, S. Pierce, C. Prebble, E. Cagua, J. Cochran, M. Berumen, A. Richardson
Journal of Plankton Research, 37, pp. 352-362, (2015)

Whale sharks target dense prey patches of sergestid shrimp off Tanzania

Keywords

Tropical zooplankton,  Elasmobranch,  Filter feeding,  Biomass threshold

Abstract

​Large planktivores require high-density prey patches to make feeding energetically viable. This is a major challenge for species living in tropical and subtropical seas, such as whale sharks Rhincodon typus. Here, we characterize zooplankton biomass, size structure and taxonomic composition from whale shark feeding events and background samples at Mafia Island, Tanzania. The majority of whale sharks were feeding (73%, 380 of 524 observations), with the most common behaviour being active surface feeding (87%). We used 20 samples collected from immediately adjacent to feeding sharks and an additional 202 background samples for comparison to show that plankton biomass was ∼10 times higher in patches where whale sharks were feeding (25 vs. 2.6 mg m−3). Taxonomic analyses of samples showed that the large sergestid Lucifer hanseni (∼10 mm) dominated while sharks were feeding, accounting for ∼50% of identified items, while copepods (<2 mm) dominated background samples. The size structure was skewed towards larger animals representative of L.hanseni in feeding samples. Thus, whale sharks at Mafia Island target patches of dense, large, zooplankton dominated by sergestids. Large planktivores, such as whale sharks, which generally inhabit warm oligotrophic waters, aggregate in areas where they can feed on dense prey to obtain sufficient energy.                  

Code

DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbv010

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