Carlos M. Duarte, Ph.D.


Distinguished Professor, Tarek Ahmed Juffali Research Chair in Red Sea Ecology

Research Interests

Prof. Carlos Duarte is a prominent leader in many branches of biological oceanography and marine ecology. From his early research days in Spain, Duarte has established himself as one of the leading global authorities on the ecology of seagrass meadows and coastal ecosystems. 

Throughout his multifaceted research career, Duarte has participated in research expeditions all over the world from the tropics to both poles studying ecological systems, biogeochemical cycles, coastal systems, macrophytes, microbes, seagrasses and open ocean gyres. Duarte, who is the current Tarek Ahmed Juffali Research Chair in Red Sea Ecology, has also served as the Director of the KAUST Red Sea Research Center (RSRC).  

Presently his research within the RSRC focuses on the pressing global marine science problems of our time. He also lends his expertise to many of the Kingdom's upcoming mega projects that revolve around the Red Sea and Vision 2030, including The Red Sea Project and NEOM.

"I am a marine ecologist broadly interested in understanding marine ecosystems and the decline that they have experienced from human pressures. I have been doing my work throughout the world, so I have been working from equatorial to polar ecosystems, from the surface ocean to the deep sea, and from microbes all the way to whales. My research was developed mostly in Spain, and Australia, where I was director of a research institute for five years. 

"From Australia, I then moved to KAUST. The reason I moved to KAUST is that I felt KAUST provided the environment and the support to bring to fruition the key ideas that I thought I would like to develop to make a difference in our capacity to achieve a healthy ocean."

Duarte has found that KAUST has provided him with the best possible interdisciplinary-driven environment for the research he has been developing around the idea of bioinspiration, or, in other words, utilizing the problem-solving capacity of marine life to inspire new engineering designs.

"I would say half of my research in KAUST focuses on traditional marine ecology and problems of marine conservation and biogeochemistry, which is how marine ecosystems process carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and what consequences does this have for problems like climate change? 

"The other half of my research focuses on the bioinspiration research theme, where I bring problems to colleagues across KAUST, mostly in the engineering sections, with interesting solutions that marine organisms have developed to cope with multiple problems, and how this might provide new avenues to solve problems in engineering."

Duarte believes freedom to pursue his research without constraint at KAUST is one of the most liberating aspects of his time at the University. 

"At KAUST, I am largely free of having to solve problems of administration or securing resources, so I use most of my working hours to work. I spend far less time at sea than I used to because the Red Sea is a very small sea, therefore, in about 19 days or two weeks you have already sailed it completely. 

"I then use the time available to interact with colleagues. I have established collaborative research with 22 KAUST faculty thus far, across all divisions and four research centers, as well as KAUST Core Lab research scientists and KAUST-owned entities, such as the Beacon Development Company. 

"Maybe now I spend no more than three to four weeks per year at sea and occasionally I go and do fieldwork and day trips. I then spend maybe two-thirds of my time discussing research with my students, postdocs and collaborators. The other third of my time I spend teaching and writing papers. However, the actual amount of work that I can fit into my working hours at KAUST is far more than I was able to do in any position before."

Duarte believes that the most critical developments in marine science moving forward will center around new devices, new approaches, and resources that he, and his RSRC colleagues, will be able to derive from the sea; both from molecules that marine animals have produced, and also through mechanical and photonic systems that marine organisms have developed. 

"I am very hopeful that this bio-inspired research will come to provide groundbreaking solutions in different aspects of engineering, human health and even food systems. I am also allocating significant time to develop a proposal that as a society, by 2050, we can restore marine biodiversity to what it was before the industrial revolution, along with creating a business case to address this challenge. 

"I think that is doable and I am coming up with a plan to achieve this. I am also looking at who the stakeholders should be to help achieve this outcome. My goal is that we arrive in 2050 with a healthy ocean that can support many generations of humans to come. 

"If future marine science students open their eyes and are able to look and be curious to explore marine life more broadly, then they will find multiple opportunities to make very significant contributions to our understanding of the oceans and marine life. Rather than just focusing on the same subjects that thousands of students around the world target because that is what they have seen on TV, they should focus on the unseen ocean ecosystem, because it is so much more exciting!"

Selected Publications

  • Unveiling the role and life strategies of viruses from the surface to the dark ocean 
    E. Lara, D. Vaqué, E. Laia Sà, J.A. Boras, A. Gomes, E. Borrull, C. Díez-Vives, E. Teira, ...
    Sci. Adv., volume 3, no. 9, e1602565, (2017)
  • Long-range transport of airborne microbes over the global tropical and subtropical ocean 
    Eva Mayol, Jesús M Arrieta, Maria A Jiménez, Adrián Martínez-Asensio, Neus Garcias-Bonet, ...
    Nature Communications 8, article number 201, (2017)
  • Fairy circle landscapes under the sea 
    D. Ruiz-Reynés, D. Gomila, T. Sintes, E. Hernández-García, N. Marbà, C.M. Duarte
    Science Advances, volume 3, no. 8, e1603262, (2017)
  • Global patterns in mangrove soil carbon stocks and losses 
    T.B. Atwood, R.M. Connolly, H. Almahasheer, P.E. Carnell, C.M. Duarte, C.J. Ewers Lewis, X...
    Nature Climate Change, 7, pp. 523-528, (2017)
  • Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change 
    C.M. Robertsa, B.C. O’Learya, D.J. McCauleyb, P.M. Curyd, C.M. Duarte, J. Lubchencof, D. P...
    PNAS, volume 114, no. 24, (2017)
  • Light penetration structures the deep acoustic scattering layers in the global ocean 
    D.L. Aksnes, A. Røstad, S. Kaartvedt, U. Martinez, C.M. Duarte and X. Irigoien
    Science Advances : Vol. 3, no. 5, e1602468, (2017)
  • The Arctic Ocean as a dead-end for floating plastics in the North Atlantic branch of the thermohaline circulation 
    A. Cozar, E. Martí, C.M. Duarte, J. García-de-Lomas, EE.rik van Sebille, T. J. Ballatore, ...
    Science Advances 3, no. 4, e1600582, (2017)
  • The ecology of human mobility. 
    M.G. Meekan, C.M. Duarte, J. Fernández-Gracia, M. Thums, A.M.M. Sequeira, R. Harcourt, V.M...
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution, volume 32, issue 3, pp. 198-210, (2017)
  • Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests. 
    D. Krause-Jensen, N. Marbà, M. Sanz-Martin, I. E. Hendriks, J. Thyrring, J. Carstensen, M...
    Science Advances, volume 2, no. 12, (2016)
  • Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses 
    Roux, S., J. R. Brum, B. E. S. Roux, J.R. Brum, B.E. Dutilh, S. Sunagawa, M.B. Duhaime, ...
    Nature 537, 689-693, (2016)


  • ​Ph.D., McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1987
  • B.Sc., Biology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain, 1982

Professional Profile

  • 2020 - Present: Distinguished ​Professor, Tarek Ahmed Juffali Chair in Marine Ecology, Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • ​2015 – 2020: Professor and Tarek Ahmed Juffali Chair in Marine Ecology, Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • 2016 - 2018: Director, Red Sea Research Center, KAUST
  • 2014 – 2017: Adjunct Professor, University of Trømso, Norway
  • 2012 – 2015: Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2011 – 2015: Winthrop Professor and Director, The UWA Oceans Institute. Part time appointment 0.5 FTE
  • 1999 – cont.: Research Professor, IMEDEA, Spanish National Research Council, Mallorca, Spain, on leave since January 13, 2015).
  • 1989 – 1999: Research Scientist, Spanish National Research Council, CEAB, Blanes, Spain
  • 1987 – 1989 Post-doctoral Fellow, Spanish National Research Council, Barcelona, Spain​

Scientific and Professional Membership

  • ​​American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO)


  • Ranked, by Reuters, as the 12th most influential climate scientist in the world
  • Prof. Duarte has received many honors for his work including the G. Evelyn Hutchinson Award from the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (2001)
  • National Science Award of Spain (2007)
  • King James I Award for Research on Environmental Protection (2009). 
  • In 2009, he received the Silver Medal Cross of Merit from the Guardia Civil, Spain, for his service to environmental protection.
  • In 2011, he also received the Prix d’Excellence, the highest honor awarded by the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES). He has received honorary doctorates from the Université de Québec a Montrèal (Canada) in 2010 and
  • Utrecht University (The Netherlands) (2012)
  • He has been named “Highly Cited Scientist”, recognizing him as one of the most influential scientists in the world by Thompson Reuters, both in 2005 and the 2014 update of the list. 
  • Elected Sustaining Fellow of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (2016)
  • Sustaining Fellow, Advancing the Science of Limnology and Oceanography, ASLO (2017)
  • Carlo Heip International Award for outstanding accomplishments in marine biodiversity science, World Marine Biodiversity Conference (2018)
  • 2018 Blaise Pascal Medal for Earth and Environmental Sciences, European Academy of Sciences (2018) 
  • Highly Cited Scientist (Clarivert Analytics) also named in all previous assessments (2018)
  • Appointed Fellow to the European Academy of Science (2018)
  • Premi Ramon Margalef d'Ecologia award (2019)
  • BBVA Foundation "Frontiers of Knowledge Award" in the area of Ecology and Conservation Biology (2020)
  • BBVA Foundation "Frontiers of Knowledge Award" in the area of Ecology and Conservation Biology (2021)

KAUST Affiliations

Research Interests Keywords

Marine ecology Environment Biodiversity Conservation biology Ecosystem ecology Coastal ecology Aquaculture Carbon Seagrass Meadows Climate Change